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Страдательный залог глагола/ The Passive Voice

Используется, когда действие направлено на предмет или лицо, выраженное подлежащим. 

То есть, подлежащее ничего не делает, действие производится над подлежащим. 

Например: Дом строится. Книга написана. Работа будет сделана.

Образование:
Образуется при помощи глагола to be соответствующего времени и глагола в 3-ей форме
Таблица времен, в которых возможно употреблене Passive Voice, и формы глагола TO BE приведена ниже:

Tense

Verb TO BE

Past Participle

Examples

Present Simple

Am/is/are

build

The house is built.

Present Continuous

Am/is/are + being

build

The house is being built.

Past Simple

Was/were

build

The house was built.

Past Continuous

Was/were+ being

build

The house was being built.

Future Simple

Will be

build

The house will be built.

“Going to”

Going to be

build

The house is going to be built.

Present Perfect

Have/has been

build

The house has been built.

Past Perfect

Had been

build

The house had been built.

Modal verbs

Can be /could be

May be /might be

Must be /had to be

build

The house can be built.

The house may be built.

The house must be built.

The house has to be built.

В отрицательных предложениях отрицательная частица not добавляется к глаголу to be либо к вспомогательному глаголу.

Tense

Verb TO BE

Past Participle

Examples

Present Simple

Am/is/are + not

build

The house is not (isn’t) built.

Present Continuous

Am/is/are + not + being

build

The house is not (isn’t) being built.

Past Simple

Was/were + not

build

The house was not (wasn’t) built.

Past Continuous

Was/were + not + being

build

The house was not (wasn’t) being built.

Future Simple

Will + not + be

build

The house will not (won’t) be built.

“Going to”

am/is/are + not + going to be

build

The house is not (isn’t) going to be built.

Present Perfect

Have/has + not + been

build

The house has not (hasn’t) been built.

Past Perfect

Had + not + been

build

The house had not (hadn’t) been built.

Modal verbs

Can/could+ not + be 

May/might + not + be

Must + not + be

do/does + not + have to be

build

The house can not (can’t) be built.

The house may not be built.

The house must not (mustn’t) be built.

The house does not (doesn’t) have to be built.

В вопросительных предложениях глагод to be либо вспомогательный глагол ставятся перед подлежащим.

Tense

Verb TO BE

Past Participle

Examples

Present Simple

Am/is/are + (что)

build

Is the house built?

Present Continuous

Am/is/are + (что) + being

build

Is the house being built?

Past Simple

Was/were + (что)

build

Was the house built?

Past Continuous

Was/were + (что) + being

build

Was the house being built?

Future Simple

Will + (что) + be

build

Will the house be built?

“Going to”

Am/is/are + (что) + going to be

build

Is the house going to be built?

Present Perfect

Have/has + (что) + been

build

Has the house been built?

Past Perfect

Had + (что) + been

build

Had the house been built?

Modal verbs

Can/could + (что) + be

May/might + (что) + be

Must + (что) + be

Do/does + (что) + have to be

build

Can the house be built?

May the house be built?

Must the house be built?

Does the house have to be built?

Примеры: 

Present Simple:  
English is spoken all over the world.
Nikon cameras are made in Japan.
Coffee isn’t grown in England.
Are cars made in your country?
Past Simple:
His car was stolen last night.
The animals were frightened by a loud voice.
He wasn’t injured in the accident.
How was the window broken?
Present Perfect: 
He’s been robbed.
X-ray machines have been used for many things.
They haven’t been invited to the party.
Has our car been repaired?
Future Simple:  
Thousands of cars will be produced next year.
The cars won’t be sold in the UK.
Will the children be sent to a new school?

Времена в страдательном залоге используются так же как и в действительном, действуют те же правила. Дополнение в действительном залоге становится подлежащим в страдательном.

Например:
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. – Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
В страдательном залоге часто используются предлоги by (одушевленные) и with (неодушевленные), которые ставятся перед существительными, переводимыми на русский язык в творительном падеже (отвечают на вопрос кем?, чем?).
Например:
Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. - Гамлет был написан (кем?) Шекспиром.
The text was written with a pen. - Этот текст был написан (чем?) ручкой.

 

 

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